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最近の研究

経営学部の教員はどのような分野でどのような研究をしているのでしょうか。ここでは研究論文の要旨を掲載し、最近の研究の一部を紹介していきます。

■モバイル端末企業によるiPhone・Androidプラットフォームへの適応とユーザー満足度に関する研究
工藤秀雄

近年、携帯電話産業では通信キャリアからApple・Googleへとプラットフォーム・リーダーの変遷がみられた。この変遷に伴い、従来から端末を製造するフォロワー企業は、新たなプラットフォームに適合した行動をとる必要が生じる。本論は携帯電話産業を対象に、(1) 携帯電話産業が変遷を迎える前から存在したフォロワー企業と、(2) 携帯電話産業の変遷後に製品市場に参入した企業の製品成果を比較分析し、仮説探索的な議論を行う。本論はiPhone、Android端末のユーザー666名の製品利用満足度についてメーカー間で多重比較分析を行った。結果、本論は(1)市場導入期・成長期の場合、プラットフォーム・リーダーがより統合的なマネジメントを行うほど、製品はより高いパフォーマンスをあげる。(2)プラットフォームの変遷に適応しようとするフォロワー企業ほど、製品に過剰な機能を搭載し、ユーザー満足度に負の影響を与える、という仮説を導出するに至った。

情報経営 2014年 5月

■Patent Strength and Optimal Two-Part Tariff Licensing with a Potential Rival
T. Kitagawa, Y. Masuda, M. Umezawa

We investigate a two-part tariff licensing contract that enables an incumbent innovator to license the technology for a new product to a potential rival, who may alternatively develop a compatible technology for an imperfectly substitutable product. We identify the optimal two-part tariff licensing contract based on the development cost incurred by the rival, the market parameter, and the substitution coefficient.

ECONOMICS LETTERS 2014年 5月

■Empirical Examination of Market Reaction to Transfer Pricing Taxation Announcement in press -Japanese Perspective-
Hiroshi Ohnuma, Keikichi Kato

The Japanese Taxation Agency introduced transfer pricing taxation in order to suppress the outflow of profits and therefore taxes of Japanese companies, which are expanding overseas. There have been many press reports regarding the application of transfer pricing taxation, and so there is much public attention on this issue. TPT (transfer pricing taxation) is applied to unnatural TP (transfer prices). If TPT is applied to a multinational company (MNC), the company will need to bear enormous documentation costs in its calculation of the ratable price. In addition, in the last few years, the target of TPT is shifting to the overseas transfer of intangible assets such as trademarks, royalties, patents, and charges income. As a result, companies have become more careful about TPT and investors tend to pay attention to companies’ TPT strategy.With regard to this point, this paper examines how the market evaluates news regarding TP by investigating the market reaction to an initial press report mentioning that a firm was involved in a TP manipulation and may be guilty of tax underpayment. We examine these events both because press reports are currently under intense scrutiny and because there has been very few researches on firms that engage in tax sheltering. Some view the fact that not all firms engage in tax sheltering as surprising because of the widespread view that shelters, at least in the 1990s, in expectation, offered a positive net present value position. The potential negative public relations effect is often cited as one reason for this “undersheltering” phenomenon. On the event-study analysis, we find the Japanese capital market has shown a statistically significant negative reaction to the press reports. This result is due to a strong distrust of corporate activity regarding TP strategies. Moreover, in order to clarify the reason why the market responds to reports of transfer pricing taxation being applied, we compute the cumulative abnormal returns around the date of the press report and conduct two-stage least-squares estimation to examine where this result regarding the market reaction comes from. Our results indicate that the variables for intangible assets and effective tax rate, and variables which represent the extent of corporate governance are statistically significant with respect to these reactions.

European Accounting Association 37th annual congress 2014年 5月

■植物工場の活用による根菜類の生産期間短縮
藤川裕晃、岩佐和奈

近年、農業の工業化として植物工場が注目を集めている。農業は天候条件に依存しているために農産物の生産数を一定にすることが難しいが、植物工場は条件を人工で制御するため生産数を一定にすることができる。しかし、そのコストの高さから商業ベースに乗せられる作物が少なく、根菜類は生産期間の長さのため難しいとされている。本稿では、植物工場で根菜類を商業ベースに乗る生産期間に短縮できることでランニングコストの削減が可能であることを牛蒡の栽培実験で示した。東京で消費される牛蒡が、青森県で露地栽培生産されて東京に輸送される場合と東京の植物工場で生産される場合の生産及び輸送コストを比較して植物工場の有効性を検証した。

日本経営工学会 春季大会 2014年5月17日 ~ 5月18日

■Are consumer sentiments useful in Japan? An application of a new market-timing test
Yoichi Tsuchiya

We investigate whether consumer sentiment in Japan is a useful predictor of household consumption, durable goods consumption and the CPI using a recently developed market-timing test. We find that consumer sentiment is not useful for predicting an increase/decrease in household consumption, durable goods consumption, and CPI. The findings suggest that policy-makers may have difficulties obtaining useful qualitative information from consumers. However, using estimated threshold values for the increase/decrease, consumer sentiment became a useful predictor of durable goods consumption and CPI. This suggests that estimating relevant thresholds could enhance the use of directional analysis.

Applied Economics Letters 2014年 4月

■Input-output substitutability and strongly monotonic p-norm least distance DEA measures
H. Fukuyama, Y. Maeda, K. Sekitani and J. Shi

In DEA, there are two frameworks for efficiency assessment and targeting: the greatest and the least dis-tance framework. The greatest distance framework provides us with the efficient targets that are deter-mined by the farthest projections to the assessed decision making unit via maximization of the p-norm relative to either the strongly efficient frontier or the weakly efficient frontier. Non-radial measures belonging to the class of greatest distance measures are the slacks-based measure (SBM) and the range-adjusted measure (RAM). Whereas these greatest distance measures have traditionally been uti-lized because of their computational ease, least distance projections are quite often more appropriate than greatest distance projections from the perspective of managers of decision-making units because closer efficient targets may be attained with less effort. In spite of this desirable feature of the least dis-tance framework, the least distance (in) efficiency versions of the additive measure, SBM and RAM do not even satisfy weak monotonicity. In this study, therefore, we introduce and investigate least distance p-norm inefficiency measures that satisfy strong monotonicity over the strongly efficient frontier. In order to develop these measures, we extend a free disposable set and introduce a tradeoff set that implements input–output substitutability.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH 2014.03

■Probabilistic Approach to the Iterative NP Construction in Japanese
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

This paper analyzed structural and semantic ambiguities of the multiple NP sequences interceded with the possessive/genitive marker in Japanese. The structural ambiguities were represented syntactically. The corpus data drew the joint and conditional probabilities.

言語処理学会第20回年次大会発表論文集 2014.03

■Moodle用英語問題作成支援ツールの開発
西口純代、石澤伊玖麿

Moodleには問題作成に用いる高性能なインターフェイスがある。マニュアルを読むことなく手軽に問題を作成することが可能となっている。しかし、一問作成するに当たり雑多な手順の踏まなくてはならない点が問題である。この問題を解決するために、GIFT形式のテキストファイルを作成しインポートする方法をとることで高速かつ多数の問題を作成することができる。今回は任意の英文を入力すると穴埋め問題が出力されるプログラムを作成した。このプログラムは、与えた文から動詞を探しだし、動詞を空欄にしたものを問題文とし、記述式穴埋め問題、多肢選択問題を出力する。

情報処理学会第76回全国大会講演論文集 2014.03

■iPhone and Android: a Comparison of User Satisfaction
Hideo KUDO

The research question of this study was: “Do different ecosystem management strategies on the part of platform leaders affect the performance of products and services on the platform?” To test this, we researched product satisfaction with the iPhone and Android smart-phones, using 666 people as a target population. On validating the difference in means of tests for each variable about product satisfaction, almost all variables demonstrated that the satisfaction of iPhone users was higher than that of Android users. The contributions of our research are as follows. First, we propose a theoretical perspective that could resolve the problem of the two opposing strategic purposes. Our perspective involves the industry’s life cycle and classifying patterns of product satisfaction. We tested product satisfaction in each platform on the basis of our perspective. Second, our research provides variables about smartphone user satisfaction from a correspondence analysis based on 666 smartphone users.

Proceeding of Symposium on Mobile Interactions 2014年 3月

■「6.3 経営戦略」「6.4 アウトソーシング」「6.5 海外進出」『ものづくりに役立つ 経営工学の事典』 ※「6.3 企業戦略」が誤植のため、7/28、RIDIAIで「6.3 経営戦略」に修正
工藤秀雄

本書は経営工学の幅広い分野について180のトピックを、用語解説と事例・活用例について見開き2頁で解説した事典である。本書は数十名の研究者が各分野専門について共著執筆したものであり、工藤は「経営戦略」「アウトソーシング」「海外進出」の論題を担当した。これらは主に経営戦略論に関わる論題である。各トピックとして、経営戦略論の学問体系、すなわち企業戦略・事業戦略・機能別戦略の違いから、競争優位を得るための外部補完企業の活用、国際経営戦略論の基本体系について、実際の企業活動の事例を交えながら解説している。

朝倉書房 2014年 1月

■A directional evaluation of corporate executives’ exchange rate forecasts
Yoichi Tsuchiya

We investigate the directional accuracy of exchange rate forecasts by corporate executives. We find that a forecast with a 1-year horizon is valuable for the profitability and unprofitability predictions of manufacturers, although previous studies provide considerable evidence that forecasts with horizons of 1 year and longer are not valuable. However, a forecast is not valuable in predicting an appreciation or depreciation of the exchange rate. Our findings suggest that corporate executives are more concerned about and focused on the impact of the exchange rate on their profitability, rather than the exchange rate itself.

Applied Economics 2014年 1月

■Purchasing and supply managers provide early clues on the direction of the US economy: An application of a new market-timing test
Yoichi Tsuchiya

We evaluate the directional accuracy of Institute for Supply Management (ISM) indices in predicting the direction of the US economy direction; to do so, we make use of a method developed by Pesaran and Timmermann (2009). By illustrating an application of the new market-timing test and extending it to a joint evaluation of increase/decrease and acceleration/deceleration, we show that while the ISM indices are useful predictors of industrial production and employment with regard to monthly economic activity and to business cycle expansion/recession, they are not useful predictors of real gross domestic product or hours worked. Our findings suggest that the ISM indices broadly provide early qualitative information on the US economy. Our findings also suggest that the importance of the nonmanufacturing sector becomes clear when examining business cycles in the U.S.

International Review of Economics and Finance 2014年 1月

■DOES EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION REFLECT EQUITY RISK INCENTIVES AND CORPORATE TAX AVOIDANCE? A JAPANESE PERSPECTIVE
Hiroshi Ohnuma

This study examines corporate tax avoidance as a determinant of executive compensation on the basis of equity risk incentives. Previous research shows that equity risk incentives motivate managers to make more risky—but positive net present value—investment decisions. Through correlation analyses, this study demonstrates that the tax risk measures adopted in this study are negatively associated with both the adoption of stock options and tax aggressive measures. Through multivariate analyses, this study demonstrates that executive compensations are significantly associated with our measures of tax risk positions despite the inclusion of several control variables. Moreover, this study finds consistent evidence that executive equity risk incentives are significantly associated with aggressive tax positions, regardless of the estimation method and the strength of the corporate governance function, and across several tax risk measures.

Corporate Ownership and Control 2014年

■農産品サプライチェーンマネジメントへの一考察
藤川裕晃、長谷川知央

日本の農家の収入は年間200万円程度で、専業では生活できないレベルにあり、TPP交渉で海外から安い農産品が入って来れば、農業は壊滅的な打撃を受けると報道されている。農家は全体の市場が見えていないので、何をどの位生産すればどの位の売上げが上がるか予測できない。天候が生産性に、市場需要が価格に影響を及ぼし、受給のミスマッチを起こし易い業界構造である。そこで、農家をまとめる生産法人が消費企業と直接取引し、農家に生産配分する機能が必要と考えられる。本稿では、農家が協業して生産を配分し輸送コストを削減するサプライチェーンを提案する。その仕組みの活用で農家の売上高を上げることをStellaによるシミュレーションで検証する。

日本経営工学会 平成25年度秋季研究発表大会 2013年11月16日 ~ 11月17日

■IFRSと連結納税
大沼宏

ここ数年連結納税制度(CTR)を導入する企業が急増している。その理由として、平成22年度税制改正によって繰越欠損金の繰越期間が延びたことと、かつてよりも使い勝手が向上したことが上げられる。そして、もう一つ指摘されるのが、IFRS(国際会計基準)導入によって繰越欠損金がより有効活用できるようになり、このことが連結納税制度の採用を後押しするということが上げられる。この推論を数値モデルによって検証し、IFRS採用は繰越欠損金の所得相殺効果にプラスの影響があることが判明した。結論として、繰越欠損金を抱える企業にとってCTR採用とIFRS全面適用のセットはかなり有効な施策であるという結果が得られた。

別冊企業会計 企業会計制度の再構築 2013年 11月

■「6章 デジタル化された世界における7つのシフト」「7章 モバイル・エコシステム」『スマホ時代のモバイル・ビジネスとプラットフォーム』
工藤秀雄 (翻訳)

本書は本学部名誉教授の東邦仁虎氏を編者とし、モバイル・ビジネスの分野で国内外・産学を問わず最先端の業界情勢を熟知する論者の論文を収めたものである。このうち、「6章 デジタル化された世界における7つのシフト」は米国テンプル大学のYoo教授、「7章 モバイル・エコシステム」は米国ウォーリック大学のHenflidsson教授の最新論文であり、工藤はその翻訳を担当している。Yoo論文は、近代産業革命以降、現在まで3つの産業論理の進化があり、現在の情報通信技術の発展は、その3つ目の進化にあたることを主張する。Henflidsson論文は、現在の経営環境における企業・顧客による生態系を意味する「エコシステム」の概念を用いて、スマートフォン産業が興る2000年代半ばからApple社がいかに合理的なマネジメントを行ってきたかを解説している。Yoo論文とHenflidsson論文に共通するのは、現在のマネジメントにおける最大の課題を指摘している点である。それは、Apple社やGoogle社のようなモバイル産業における中核的企業が、いかに補完企業とユーザーの利益・満足度を高めつつ、ビジネス上の生態系全体で繁栄していくかという課題である。

創成社 2013年 11月

■A Review of Piecewise Linearization Methods
Ming-Hua Lin, John Gunnar Carlsson, Dongdong Ge, Jianming Shi, and Jung-Fa Tsai

Various optimization problems in engineering and management are formulated as nonlinear programming problems. Because of the nonconvexity nature of this kind of problems, no efficient approach is available to derive the global optimum of the problems. How to locate a global optimal solution of a nonlinear programming problem is an important issue in optimization theory. In the last few decades, piecewise linearization methods have been widely applied to convert a nonlinear programming problem into a linear programming problem or a mixed-integer convex programming problem for obtaining an approximated global optimal solution. In the transformation process, extra binary variables, continuous variables, and constraints are introduced to reformulate the original problem. These extra variables and constraints mainly determine the solution efficiency of the converted problem. This study therefore provides a review of piecewise linearization methods and analyzes the computational efficiency of various piecewise linearization methods.

MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING 2013.11

■NPI Licensing in Dhaasanac
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

Maa "person" is the NPI licensed by negation unlike the PPI maadhat. Another NPI niini "none" is licensed (non)locally while negative concord items are generally subject to locality (Zanuttini 1991, Progovac 1994). Niini cannot stand alone as fragmental answer, in contrast with negative concord item nadie in Spanish. NPI licensing has been explained as Agree operation. As not is grammatical in absence of NPIs in its domain, Reverse Agree should be the correct account contra Bošković (2007). Not carries an interpretable feature that probes the uninterpretable feature of the NPI (cf. Zeijlstra 2010). As the negative marker ma and negative suffix can stand alone, niini and maa carry the uninterpretable feature matching with the interpretable feature of the c-commanding suffix.

日本言語学会第147回大会予稿集 2013.11

■Distance optimization approach to ratio-form efficiency measures in data envelopment analysis
H. Fukuyama, H.Masaki, K.Sekitani and J.Shi

The standard data envelopment analysis mea- sures of the Charnes–Cooper–Rhodes (CCR) and slacks- based measure (SBM) are ratio-form efficiency measures, which do not yield the closest projections. However, because of difficulties implementing projections based on standard measures, the closest projections identified by means of least-distance measures may be preferable. Taking into account the practical significance of closest projection points, Aparicio et al. (J Prod Anal 28:209–218, 2007) pro- posed a least-distance approach based not only on the 1-norm (Manhattan), 2-norm (Euclidean), and infinity-norm (Cheby- shev), but also on the procedure presented by Cherchye and Van Puyenbroeck (Eur J Oper Res 132(2):287–295, 2001). Recently, Tone (Eur J Oper Res 200(2):901–907, 2010) presented a least-distance version of SBM (or equivalently, the enhanced Russell graph measure). However, these authors examined neither the occurrence of multiple optimal, projections nor the strong/weak monotonicity of the ratio- form least-distance efficiency measures over the efficient frontier of the production technology. Furthermore, it is not well known that the standard measures of CCR and SBM suffer from the occurrence of multiple optimal solutions or efficient targets. Therefore, the present paper also investi- gates the possibility of multiple optimal targets and axiom- atic properties of ratio-form efficiency measures within a unified p-norm efficiency measurement framework.

JOURNAL OF PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS 2013.10

■モバイル・コンテンツとプラットフォームの変遷に関する考察
工藤秀雄

わが国のモバイル・コンテンツ市場は、スマートフォンが普及する以前から、2000年前後を基点に通信キャリア主導で市場形成されてきた。スマートフォンの普及後はApple、Google両社がコンテンツ市場をコントロールしており、日本のコンテンツ・ベンダーはプラットフォームの変遷を経験している現状にある。そこで本論は、こうしたプラットフォームの変遷がコンテンツ・サプライヤの能力に対し、補強的・破壊的影響のいずれをもたらすかについて、理論的・概念的に議論を展開している。本論は先行研究を経て理論枠組みを構築し、プラットフォームの次元を(1)技術、(2)取引ネットワーク、(3)ハブ企業との関係性に類型している。この枠組みの下、推論した結果、コア能力が技術や取引ネットワークに基づく企業に対し、プラットフォーム・シフトは能力補強的な影響をもたらすが、ハブ企業との関係性依拠する企業は能力破壊の傾向を示すという仮説が導かれた。

日本情報経営学会 2013年 9月

■The LP-Newton method for standard form linear programming problems
Tomonari Kitahara, Shinji Mizuno and Jianming Shi

Fujishige et al. propose the LP-Newton method, a new algorithm for solving linear programming problems (LPs). They address LPs which have a lower and an upper bound for each variable. They reformulate the problem by introducing a related zonotope. Their algorithm solves the problem by repeating projections to the zonotope. In this paper, we develop the LP-Newton method for solving standard form LPs. We recast the LP by introducing a related convex cone. Our algorithm solves the problem by iterating projections to the convex cone.

OPERATIONS RESEARCH LETTERS 2013.09

■Extended Generative Lexicon
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

This paper proposes an elaboration of the Generative Lexicon (GL) in Pustejovsky (1995) based on a survey of BCCWJ (2009). I manually classified the Japanese NP1-no NP2 “NP1’s NP2” constructionin accordance with semantic relations between the two nominals. The result indicates the need for the expansion of GL for computing the meaning of the NP1-no NP2 construction by incorporating referential module, as I call, that predicates temporary location, time, and manner of the referent. For example, in ima-no nihon “the present Japan,” ima-no modifies the time of the event argument in the referential module.

GL2013 2013.09

■Current situation regarding visual correction methods in university athletes and associated issues
Murakami,S.,Ohto-Fujita,E.,Kohmura,Y.,Shiraishi,Y.,Aoki,K.,Sawaki,K.,Hamano,R.

In this study, we conducted a survey among athletes from universities specializing in health and sport sciences to learn the current state of visual correction methods and sports as well as associated issues. Of the total 147 subjects who were surveyed, 88(59.9%) used some type of visual correction during a sporting event. Visual correction methods used during sports events (multiple responses allowed) included glasses (Gl)(39.8%), hard contact lenses (HCL)(1.1%), soft contact lenses (SCL)(46.6%), and disposable contact lenses (DCL)(70.3%). Responses with regard to the importance of vision in the sports events in which the subjects mainly participated were as follows: important: 49.3% ; very important: 34.9%. However, the percentages of subjects who felt some kind of discomfort/ inconvenience with the visual correction method used were 26.0% for GL, 1.3% for HCL, 40.1% for SCL, and 61.0% for DCL. Symptoms of dry eye, which is one of the factors of discomfort associated with visual correction methods, was observed in 7.5% of all subjects. Dry eye was frequent in 3rd and 4th year students, more common in males, and it tended to be more common in case of volleyball, but less common in case of soccer and track and field. The results of this survey suggested that suitable preventative measures and coping techniques are necessary for symptoms of dry eye, which is one of the factors of discomfort associated with visual correction methods.

日本臨床スポーツ医学会誌 2013.08

■Sensor-Pattern-Noise Map Reconstruction in Source Camera Identification for Size-Reduced Images
Joji Watanabe, Tadaaki Hosaka, and Takayuki Hamamoto

SUMMARY For source camera identification, we propose a method to reconstruct the sensor pattern noise map from a size-reduced query image by minimizing an objective function derived from the observation model. Our method can be applied to multiple queries, and can thus be further improved. Experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over conventional interpolation-based magnification algorithms.

IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION AND SYSTEMS 2013.08

■Modeling the impact of partial information sharing in a three-echelon supply chains
Z.Liu and Q. Zhao, S. Wang , J. Shi

This paper investigates the impact of partial information sharing in a three-echelon supply chain. Partial information sharing means that information sharing occurs only between the distributor and the retailer, but not between the distributor and the manufacturer. This paper contributes to the literature by summarizing the circumstances in which information sharing between the retailer and the distributor benefits the manufacturer. In addition, our study points out that such information sharing does not always bring benefits to the manufacturer and that in some cases the information sharing may harm the manufacturer. We explain the reasons why this can happen and give managerial intuition for our results. Using numerical analysis, we illustrate the impact of partial information sharing on the agents in the supply chain with the change of the autoregressive coefficient in the demand process.

ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH 2013.08

■Bayesian analysis of unemployment dynamics in Japan
K. Kyo, H. Noda, and G. Kitagawa

In this paper, we investigate the unemployment dynamics in Japan within the framework of Bayesian modelling. To consider structural changes in a model for the matching function specified in Cobb-Douglas form, we regard not only the matching efficiency but also the elasticities of new hiring with respect to unemployment and with respect to vacancies as time-varying parameters. Then, from a Bayesian perspective, these are treated as random variables and smoothness priors are introduced. In addition, a set of models for the matching function and the smoothness priors is described in a state space representation. The parameter estimation is carried out using Kalman filter and fixed-interval smoothing. The average for the period between January 2009 and December 2010 suggests that 60% of the total unemployment rate was a result of structural and frictional factors and that 40% was attributable to a labour demand deficiency. Further, in terms of matching efficiency, the Japanese labour market is not viewed as functioning effectively even in the late 2000s

Asian Journal of Management Science and Applications, August 2013

■Role of Total Factor Productivity in Economic Growth of Taiwan
K. Kyo and H. Noda

Applying Bayesian techniques, this paper analyzes trend in total factor productivity (TFP) behind Taiwan's economic growth. To estimate time-varying TFP and elasticities of output with respect to factors of production, smoothness priors are incorporated in statistical models based on a Cobb-Douglas production function. We assume that in some situations there may be rapid changes in TFP, although TFP in general varies smoothly. Our modeling enables the expression of diverse patterns of TFP and an understanding of the continuous movement of TFP. Thus a more flexible model can be constructed compared with the conventional models in empirical studies of TFP. The results suggest that TFP will play an increasingly important role in Taiwan's future economic growth.

ICIC Express Letters, Part B: Applications, August 2013

■Bayesian Analysis of the Dynamic Relationship between Oil Price Fluctuations and Industrial Production Performance in Japan
K. Kyo and H. Noda

This paper studies the dynamic effects oil price fluctuations have on industrial production performance in Japan. Much of the previous research has used models based on the assumption of invariability in the coefficients of the explanatory variables. When we consider time series modeling over a period of several decades, however, the assumption that there are no structural changes is clearly unrealistic. Although in some cases coefficient dummy variables have been employed to consider structural changes in a model, this only represents a discontinuous jump at a particular point in time. Actual structural changes do not necessarily occur in the form of discontinuous jumps, which suggests that coefficient dummy variables are inadequate for understanding complex structural change patterns. Thus, much of the previous research is not based on an appropriate dynamic framework. To capture patterns of structural change more properly, we propose applying Bayesian methods based on the smoothness prior approach. Specifically, we present a Bayesian dynamic regression modeling approach and a Bayesian time-varying coefficient vector autoregressive modeling approach. Our results suggest that the nonlinear approach in Zhang (2008) [Zhang, D., 2008. Oil Shock and Economic Growth in Japan: A Nonlinear Approach, Energy Economics, 30, 2374-2390.] may not be appropriate for analyzing the relationship between oil prices and business fluctuations. Also, we find that the negative impact of oil price fluctuations on industrial production performance of the Japanese economy has been increasing since the 2000s.

Information: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, July 2013

■A linear relaxation algorithm with lower dimension for solving the sum of linear ratios problem
John Gunnar Carlsson and Jianming Shi

In this paper, we present an algorithm for solving the sum-of-linear-ratios problem based on a linear relaxation of the objective function. Though there already exist linear relaxation algorithms for solving this problem, they all work on a space whose dimension increases with the number of ratios. When the number of ratios becomes large, these algorithms are unable to solve the problem efficiently. Our numerical experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm in this paper is superior to these existing algorithms when the number of ratios is large.

OPERATIONS RESEARCH LETTERS 2013.06

■The function of Management Control System on Environmental and Economic Performance in Environmental Supply Chain Management
Satoka YAMANE

The aim of this study was to examine the function of the Management Control System including environmental matters on environmental and economic performance in Environmental Supply Chain Management. This research framework is characterized by applying Inter-Organizational Relationship theory to ESCM and its performance. Using survey data from a sample of Japanese manufacturing and retail companies, the empirical study suggests that a specific application of MCS including environmental aspects influence ESCM performance. More specifically, (i) the function of MCS like information timeliness and completeness as information quality and information sharing among supply chain partners influence improving system, technology, business performance of ESCM, (ii) trust as inter-organizational control influences improving market performance of ESCM, (iii) MCS as hard control and trust as soft control function simultaneously to execute ESCM strategy and it will lead to improve market performance of ESCM, (iv) intra-organizational control like cross-functional coordination is the supportive driver of ESCM, (v) the recognition of basic strategy including fundamental factors like quality, cost, delivery, risk influence all ESCM performance, (vi) not only the recognition of strategy but also the stance for ESCM has impact ESCM performance, especially the stance of leading industry has relation with system performance of ESCM, and the stance of prioritizing its company has relation with market, technology performance of ESCM.

Proceedings of European Accounting Association 36th Annual Congress May, 2013

■マネジメントの基礎~モノづくり企業のリバイバル手法
藤川裕晃

副題が示すように、製造業が高度成長とは言わないまでも、安定成長程度でも良いのでリバイバルできるように経営を立て直すための指針にと著した本である。序章で現在の製造業の経営環境を概観し、経営の基となる経営目的・目標・理念や歴史を先ず見て行く。次に、経営戦略、市場戦略としてのマーケテイング、イノベーションと研究開発、生産戦略と実践更にサプライチェーンマネジメントまでについて概説する。次に、それらを取り巻く情報戦略、財務戦略、ヒューマンリソースの管理と経営組織の構築、環境経営を述べて、最後に意思決定について述べる。読者の対象は、学生だけではなくて製造業のビジネスマンや中小企業経営者まで広範囲の方々にも読んで頂けるように、理論に走らず、現実の例をベースに平易な記述を心がけて記述している。

創成社 2013年 5月

■CCG for Discourse
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

Question and answer congruence has been considered to be a discourse unit (Groenendijk & Stokhof 1984, Ginzburg & Sag 2001). The present study proposes a new framework for question-answer pairs and focused sentences in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) (Steedman 1996, 2000, Szabolcsi 1987). In CCG, questions and focused sentences have been assigned the categories of S (Jäger 2005, Barker & Shan 2006). In spite of such treatment, questions have been considered to be sets of possible answers from semantic perspectives (Hamblin 1973). Pragmatically, focus induces a set of alternatives (Rooth 1985, 1992). I claim that interrogatives and focused sentences should be functions from a sentence to another sentence in view of their semantics. Such novel categories enable combining with the following sentence in a discourse by means of functional application. Thereby, I analyze Japanese sentence-final particles such as a question marker ka as category S\(S/S). Other sentenc-final particles such as yo and no are considered as verum, or polarity focus operators (Höhle 1992, Romero & Han 2004).

東京理科大学紀要(教養編)2013.04

■moodleQmaker
西口純代、石澤伊矩磨

本研究では、TOEIC リーディング問題に接尾辞の選択に関する問題が多いことに着目し、Moodleにインポートできるファイル形式で問題の自動生成プログラムを開発した。NLTK を使用してWikipedia 等の英文より動詞を抽出し、語幹を切り離して接尾辞と合成して間違い選択肢を作成した。開発したプログラムは自身の辞書データを構築していくため、web に負荷をかけることなく問題精度と速度を向上させることができる。接頭辞に関しても同様の方法が可能であるし、動詞以外の品詞、例えば名詞を抽出しても同様の問題作成が可能である。

情報処理学会第75回全国大会講演論文集 2013.03

■Extended GL
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

Even though Pustejovsky’s (1995) four qualia express inherent properties of referents, I propose supplementing lexical semantics with information about the referents. I have made a small database of fifty lexical items taken from BCCWJ2009 in the format of the Extended GL.

言語処理学会第19回年次大会予稿集 2013.03

■マネジメント・プロセスの側面からみた環境配慮型設備投資の現状と課題
山根里香、小倉昇、國部克彦

環境に配慮した設備投資の意思決定は、環境性と経済性の間で決断を迫られることが多い。環境配慮型設備投資に関する意思決定は、環境戦略の実行を担う経営行動として意思決定が行われなければならない。そこでは、企業が自社の環境戦略を遂行するために、どのような設備投資案を採択するのか、また環境性に着目した意思決定をもたらすマネジメント要因は何であるのか、その意思決定のプロセスをマネジメント・プロセスとして把握し解明する必要がある。本研究では、環境配慮型設備投資をマネジメント・プロセスの側面から捉え、質問票調査に基づく検証を行った。設備投資マネジメント・プロセスの構成要因として、「多面的な事前評価」、「組織横断的な検討」、「事後評価の実施と事例共有」が抽出され、設備投資のパフォーマンスに異なる影響を及ぼすことが明らかとなった。またこれらの構成要因は、戦略や不確実性などの状況要因に影響を受けることも明らかとなった。

日本原価計算研究 2013年 3月

■Night-Time Leading Vehicle Detection Using Two Different-Exposure Images
Satoshi Okamoto, Tadaaki Hosaka, and Takayuki Hamamoto

Abstract— The demand for Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB) technology, which controls vehicle headlights adaptively and automatically, has recently increased. To implement ADB using image processing, we propose a novel method to detect leading vehicles by capturing two images taken at different exposures with a car-mounted stereo camera. From a low-exposure image, we detect pairs of red lights that could be tail lights of a vehicle. Then, a high-exposure image, which provides abundant visual information allows us to classify each detected pair of red lights as a leading vehicle or not. This classifier consists of features selected by the AdaBoost algorithm from a large amount of gradient and color features. Experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Proceedings of IWAIT 2013 2013.01

■Adaptive Control for Traffic Signal Aspect Pattern and its Evaluation
Shinya Nogami and Seiya Sawada

Setting changeable traffic flow as smoothly as possible, it is desirable to control traffic signals at intersection dynamically and adaptively considering not only time parameters but also selection of next signal aspect pattern. This paper proposes such an adaptive traffic signal control traffic signal aspect patterns. In this proposed method, the next signal aspect pattern is selected adaptively depending on the traffic volume at that time point. The performance of characteristic value is evaluated by simulations comparing with existing methods and some considerations are given.

An International Interdisciplinary Journal iNFORMATION 2013年1月

■Are government and IMF forecasts useful? An application of a new market-timing test
Yoichi Tsuchiya

We investigate the directional accuracy of GDP and price forecasts by the Japanese government and the IMF with a new method developed by Pesaran and Timmermann [Pesaran, M.H., Timmermann, A., 2009. Testing dependence among serially correlated multi-category variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association 485, 325–337]. Extending the literature to government forecasts, our results illustrate an empirical application of the new test. Our findings provide positive evidence about the usefulness of IMF forecasts whereas they cast doubts about government forecasts.

Economics Letters 2013年 1月

■Do corporative executives have accurate predictions for the economy? A directional analysis
Yoichi Tsuchiya

Although many studies on the directional accuracy of forecasts by international organizations and professional forecasters have been scrutinized, little attention has been paid to forecasts by business leaders. In order to address this gap, we use directional tests to investigate whether forecasts of Gross Domestic Product by corporate executives are valuable to their users. Our findings indicate that all the forecasts with forecast horizons from 1 to 14 months are valuable, whereas established literature indicates that longer-term forecasts tend not to be valuable. This suggests that corporate executives are concerned with and focus on longer-term economic environments and can therefore serve as an important resource for policymakers. However, some of the useful forecasts with real-time data, in particular those in the Tankan survey, are not useful with historical data.

Economic Modelling 2013年 1月

■ Shifty Operators in Dhaasanac
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

There has been much debate on whether or not contexts are shiftable. Kaplan (1977) claimed that they are not, but Schlenker (2003) and Anand & Nevins (2004), among others, have argued that context shifters (referred to as monsters) exist in languages such as Amharic and Zazaki. In this snippet I present data from Dhaasanac that contradict Kaplan’s claim and that echo Anand and Nevins’ Zazaki data.

Snippets 2012.12

■Disambiguation of Possessives: The Extended Generative Lexicon
Sumiyo Nishiguchi

Disambiguation of Possessives: The Extended Generative Lexicon

Possessive expressions are ambiguous. For example, ``Mary's book" can mean the book that Mary owns or the book that Mary wrote. The purpose of this book is to provide means for possessive disambiguation, and to enable the interpretation of the semantic relations between the possessor and the possessee. The Generative Lexicon Theory (GL), which has been considered to be a powerful tool for disambiguation of possessives, is found to be insufficient for Japanese possessives such as ``boshi-no hito" (the hat lady). Therefore, this book modifies GL and supplement lexical semantic information with another submodule. The Extended GL, what I call, provides means to predict the maximum possible kinds of relations between ``hat" and ``the lady."

Lambert Academic Publishing 2012.12

■Evaluation of Laboratory Assignment Problem with Tactics
Shinya Nogami and Saki Nakamura

“One-to-many matching problems” is a kind of matching problems, which means an element of one side is combined to plural elements of another group. Laboratory Assignment Problem (LAP), college admissions problems, and medical interns for residents are the typical examples of these problems. In such cases, better matching results which reflect his wishes as much as possible are desirable. However, it is generally very difficult because a kind of "tactics" may exist in such cases besides concepts of priorities of selections, and/or evaluation criteria that will be given by possible partners. In this research, we generally consider this one-to-many matching problems, setting the LAP as a target example for evaluation. In this LAP, the better solution of combinations are sought and selected which reflect the wishes of both sides, laboratories and students. It is already reported for the relatively simple case in which grades of students are determined by total points of all subjects and assignments are executed by the order of those grades. This laboratories assignment problem is generalized to the case in which each teaching staff (laboratory side) has different assessment axes and students also select the laboratories considering that axes. Besides, it may exist the concept of “tactics”, which means students give “false statement” that can let them become in more advantageous position. However, it is not yet revealed that in what situations this tactics are valid or to what extent this tactics is quantitatively valid. Therefore, in this paper, we are going to discuss the validity of this "strategies" in the LAP and reveal the meaning of the existence of common strategies in this matching problem. Firstly, we analyze the impact of each factor which many kinds of different assessment axes have. Next, we evaluate the validity of tactics by researching the relation between the degree of reflection of their wishes and percentage of students who used this tactics. Finally, considering these results, we give the conclusion about the validity and its applicable area.

9th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information and Telecommunication Technologies 2012年11月

■Evaluation of Various Delivery Methods and Inventory Management systems in SCM
Shinya Nogami and Junichi Tada

There is a logistics network design in the supply chain management. It is decision making throughout the entire supply chain such as transport routes from any point to any point, how many pieces the stock should be held in the warehouse, where factories and warehouses should be established. In this study, we divide designing logistics network into three issues the transportation problem, inventory management systems, facility location design to enable them. About the transportation problem that is the first issue, when parameters such as cost, distance between the points, movement time, demand and manufacturers and shipping address is given, we verify the total cost, movement distance, delivery time optimization (semi-). There are solution techniques for solving these problems has been developed a number. Delivery methods such as delivery via delivery centers and direct shipment system are one of them. In this study, rather than fixed to one delivery method as in the past, we think about optimization (semi-) including a combination of multiple delivery methods and investigate the validity and its application area. About inventory management systems that are the second issue, we consider the stock model customer demand fluctuates stochastically. Typically, there is a safety stock quantity in the inventory, we order the product as no less than this. On the other hand tends to correspond to the sudden demand greater the stock, cost of inventory management. Model and solution method such as fixed order quantity system and periodic reordering method have been proposed for this. So in this study, we will propose specific plan of (semi-) optimal ordering system such as considered maximum inventory and order interval in each delivery method and investigate more efficient method of inventory management and its application area. About facility location design that is the third issue, we will make the design of the location of the facility considered evaluation of the study of transportation problems and inventory management method described above. When preconditions such as distance between the facilities, the number of manufacturers and shipping address, load to environment, out of stock and excess inventory, is given, we verify what should we put each facility, how to determine the amount of conveyance and delivery frequency and look at the effect of each delivery method on facility location design. When the evaluation, we will use the settings such as load network similar to one used in the first issue’s simulation and consider the new evaluation axis and perform a comprehensive evaluation of the consideration as well as the utility function.

9th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information and Telecommunication Technologies 2012年11月

■Principles and its Effects of AACQ (Actively, Adaptively Controlled Queuing)
Shinya Nogami and Keita Yamanaka

The traditional basic queuing systems, described using Kendall’s notation such as A/B/S/K, are ordinary expressed by the distributions of inter-arrival time and service time, number of servers, system capacity, etc. However, in our real daily life, we sometimes encounter probabilistic phenomena or systems which are constructed by not only these factors but also several more complicated factors of queuing, for example, some service disciplines in addition to FIFO (First In First Out), service priorities, concept of “cost”, (quantitatively and/or qualitatively) various kinds of jobs which arriving customers bring in, (quantitatively and/or qualitatively) heterogeneous servers etc. In these cases, some extended queuing models, are necessary to be considered and some of these topics have been already picked up by some researches. The extended queuing models may have more elements besides mentioned above, such as concept of jockeying, group arrival / group service model, servers with sabbatical time (which is equal to service model with gate), the service starts with the condition of matching with other customers, service completion time, etc. In these extended queuing model, system manager is also in a “passive” position, which means system manager, who is able to determine only fixed number of servers and their invariable service rates, can not control the characteristic values. In other words, this is because these system characteristics are determined by the ones of arriving customers. On the other hand, if system manager can actively and adaptively control various parameters following to the change of customers’ various conditions in the non-steady states, there is a possibility of realization of more effective service for the system management side and more comfortable and fair service for the customers. In this paper, in that meaning, the AACQ (Actively, Adaptively Controlled Queuing) model is proposed, which can always provide optimum services even in the changeable surroundings with time. Firstly, we explain the basic model of AACQ, and several elements which construct this AACQ are explained and its basic effects are verified. In this AACQ model, there exist various types, and the controls may be available in which system utilization factor and/or working rate of servers are kept within fixed ranges, and the values of these performances can be set and controlled for short, middle, and log range objectives. Secondly, the performances of this AACQ are evaluated with computer simulations, considering the difference with traditional basic queuing models. Finally, the usefulness and applicable ranges of this proposed model are discussed.

9th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information and Telecommunication Technologies 2012年11月

■A Consideration for the Bulk Queue Models with Jockeying
Shinya Nogami and Saki Yonekura

In a queuing system, conditions in the system momentarily change. The action of customers moving from one queue to another hoping to receive services more quickly is called jockeying. This may become necessary when a decrease in service rate, an increase in the expected queue length or others happen. As common examples of jockeying in daily life, there are the cash register at the supermarket or convenience store, the bank’s ATM, and so on. This study considers queue models with jockeying and deals with concepts of “observability”, “payment”, and “a batch-arrival / batch-service”. The model is called “the bulk queue models with jockeying”. Firstly, as for “observability”, whether or not arriving customers can observe the state of the system, the models are classified into three types: (1) Observable model, all arriving customers can observe every state of the system, (2) Unobservable model, a customer can observe his queue but not the other queues, and (3) Mixture model, this is a mixture of (1) and (2). Secondly, as for “payment”, customers pay the money for the system in order to acquire the rights of jockeying or observability, the models are classified into two types: (a) payments for jockeying (unit price J), a customer pays the money every time he jockeys, and (b) payments for observability (unit price I), a customer pays the money in order to acquire the information about other queues. Thirdly, as for “a batch-arrival / batch-service”, called the bulk queue models, the models are the extended one of single queue models that customers individually arrive and get services. And this is the key of this study. Here, the batch sizes of customers, X, follows a certain probability distribution function. Customers arrive and get service in a batch and each customer in a batch uses a server one by one. The characteristics of the bulk queue models seem to be different from the single queue models. Since the models assume a batch-arrival / batch-service, all customers in a rejected batch balk at once in the case of the insufficiency of the queue’s empty space. And served customers may leave the system in a batch or individually. Therefore, we will analyze the several characteristics containing a probability of balking and a utilization rate of servers. We will also evaluate the characteristics quantitatively that show the effects of jockeying. As a parameter, there are an actual probability of jockeying, the batch sizes, the arrival rates, the service rates, and so on. In this way, we evaluate and consider the performance of the bulk queue models, comparing with the single queue models.

9th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information and Telecommunication Technologies 2012年11月

■Evaluation of Strategies for Quantitative and Qualitative VCHS-Type Queuing Systems
Shinya Nogami and Satoru Shimizu

This paper proposes an extended queuing system that will be called the “Various Customers and Heterogeneous Servers (VCHS)” –type queuing systems. In this type of queuing systems, various customers arrive at a single queue with some quantitative and/or qualitative levels of jobs, and plural heterogeneous servers with different abilities and/or skills exist. And “a system manager” can assign a server to each arriving customer according to “a server assignment strategy.” It is important for this type of queuing system to select an effective strategy that determines an appropriate server for an arriving customer. Several strategies for server assignment were evaluated using simulations, and selection of the appropriate strategy was found to lead to a marked improvement in system performance.

An International Interdisciplinary Journal iNFORMATION 2012年11月

■新たな多眼Quad-HD撮像系と高解像度画像生成アルゴリズムの提案
佐藤俊一,田中誠一, 北川真, 瀬尾光慶, 若林保孝, 紫村智哉,今井巧, 大森圭祐, 齋藤栄, 保坂忠明,浜本隆之

This paper describes multi-camera technology that generates quad-HD video based on depth information in real time. We propose new high-resolution image synthesis algorithms based on disparity estimation suitable for hardware implementation. Each green camera is shifted by half the length of one pixel with respect to the base camera. Thereby, a quad-HD image is synthesized using a simple pixel matching algorithm. Moreover, the reliability of the disparity estimation is simultaneously evaluated as error information. Experimental results show that quad-HD resolution is obtained. We conclude that our algorithms are effective for high-resolution cameras.

映像情報メディア学会誌 2012.10

■ズーム量が異なる多視点画像を用いた再構成型超解像
大森達也,保坂忠明,佐藤俊一,浜本隆之

多視点から撮影される画角の広い低解像度画像及び画角の狭いズーム画像群を用いる超解像手法を提案する.再構成処理において,視点間の画素対応推定を繰り返し行うことで解を修正していく.評価実験により,提案手法の有効性を定性的・定量的に確認した。

電子情報通信学会論文誌 D 2012.09

■欧州市場における日本企業の環境事業展開の現状と課題
山根里香

欧州市場で事業を展開する日本企業、特に製造業にとって、EU環境規制の動向把握と対応が事業展開上のリスク・マネジメントの要諦となりうる。欧州市場においては、厳しい環境規制のみならず、政府や評価機関など多様な利害関係者との関係構築が事業遂行の鍵を握ることも少なくない。また海外事業展開においては、グローバリゼーションとローカリゼーションのバランスを図ることが重要になる。本稿では、欧州市場における環境関連事業の展開について、ドイツにおける産学協同プロジェクトの事例を通じてP2Mの観点から検討を加えた。とりわけ多様なステークホルダーとの関係構築の重要性を認識したスキームモデルのあり方、それらをマネジメントできるプロジェクト・マネジャーの意義について明らかにした。

国際P2M学会誌 2012.09

■環境決定的-主体選択的な戦略形成と成果の関係-自動車製品開発プロジェク ト・マネジャーに基づく実証研究-
工藤秀雄

経営戦略論には環境決定論と主体選択論の2つの理論視角がある。前者は環境に対して分析的・受身的なアプローチであり、後者は戦略構築の主体性を重んじた創造的・能動的なアプローチである。これら2つの理論的な対立視角は、概念的な整理に関する研究はみられたものの、それぞれの有効性について実証的に検証した研究はこれまでにほとんど存在しなかった。そこで本論は、日本の自動車メーカー6社130製品の開発マネージャへのインタビューデータから、環境決定的な戦略に関わる発言、主体選択的な戦略に関わる発言を抽出し、それら発言頻度と製品成果との関係を検証した。その検証から、主体選択的な戦略に関わる発言が多くおこなわれているほど製品成果が高いことが示された。本論は、現在の経営状況において特に主体選択的な戦略論の重要性が高まっていることを指摘し、2つの理論視角の対立に理論的かつ実務的な示唆をもたらしている。

経営戦略研究 2012.06

■An extension of branch-and-bound algorithm for solving sum-of-nonlinear-ratios problem
Lianbo Gao, Shashi K. Mishra, Jianming Shi

This paper is concerned with a problem of maximizing the sum of several ratios of functions. We extend an algorithm, which has been designed to solve the sum-of-linear-ratios problem, for solving the sum-of-nonlinear-ratios problem. We also discuss the complexity of the problem and report the results of numerical experiments on the extended algorithm.

Optimization Letters 2012.02

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