- その1 特許（パテント）と建築作品の関係
- その2 システムデザインについて
- その3 TOTALサービスステーションにおけるペトロフ屋根の建物について
- その4 TOTALサービスステーションにおけるシリンダー状建物
- その5 TOTALサービスステーションにおける矩形状建物
- その6 戦後日本の建築界への影響に関する考察
- その7 1960及び1971年の2度の来日に関する考察
- その8 セットの視点からみたプルーヴェの家具作品
- その9 シリーズの視点からみたプルーヴェの家具作品
- その10 ナンシーの住宅に関する考察
- その1 建築におけるスケール概念の系譜
- その2 建築におけるスケール概念の分類
- その3 建築の外部空間にみられるサイズについて
- その4 サイズを通してみた建築の外部空間の比較分析
- その5 建築の立面構成にみられるサイズについて
- その6 サイズを通してみた建築の立面構成の比較分析
- その7 現代独立住宅にみられるサイズについて
- その8 サイズを通してみた現代独立住宅の比較分析
- その9 現代集合住宅にみられるサイズについて
- その10 サイズを通してみた現代集合住宅の比較分析
- その11 住宅の解説文にみられる平面寸法について
- その12 住宅の解説文にみられる立断面寸法について
- その1 東京の都市街区にみられる公的領域
- その2 領域形式からみた東京の街区類型
- その3 パリの都市街区にみられる公的領領域
- その4 領域形式からみたパリの街区類型
- その5 東京都区部の居住街区にみられる領域的性格
- その6 東京都区部における住居街区の類型
- その7 バルセロナ・エイシャンプレ地区にみられる街区形態
- その8 バルセロナ・エイシャンプレ地区にみられる中庭型街区
- その9 東京都区部の再開発型街区にみられる空間構成
- その10 東京都区部の再開発型街区にみられる公的領領域
This report is corresponding to our presentation for the congress of International Union of Architects in Barcelona 1996. The main theme of the congress was "Present and Future: Architecture in Cities". We participated the forum of the SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, in which 25 groups made up of lecturers and students, representing the school of architecture and their own city, set foward a vision of the recent past, the present and future projects for the city in the form of oral sessions (30 min. in English with 80 slides) and an exposition bringing together various projects (21 color sheets of A1 size panel).
この報告書は、1996年7月スペイン・バルセロナで開かれた国際建築家協会（UIA）主催の第19回国際建築家会議において、 我々（東海大学建築学科岩岡研究室）が発表した内容をまとめたものである。本会議のメインテーマは＜現在と未来：都市の中の建築＞というものであった。 我々の参加したセクションは、建築系スクールがそれぞれ自分の都市における現在の建築状況と将来プロジェクトを、 口頭発表およびパネル・プレゼンテーションによって説明・討議するフォーラムであり、世界各地から25の大学チームが一同に集まった。 我々はこのフォーラムにおいて、＜東京＞における都市と建築との関係を、主に＜住居＞の側面から浮き彫りにし、 また居住形態の現状をビジュアルにまとめ、さらに未来へのいくつかのプログラムを提示した。
Tokyo Dwelling by Tatsuo IWAOKA, Tokai University
Land prices of Tokyo had been soaring in the 80's, the big capital flowed into the city on the security of lands. New office buildings and commercial buildings were so many built in the mid of Tokyo, residential areas expanded to very far suberbs. Downtown has become a fascinating area for labor and for amusement. In the valley of Shibuya, where many kinds of traffic networks cross with an overpass, young people gathered together to send various up-to-date subculture. The entertainment district in Shinjuku gave us the bright night and satisfied our desires. The electronic communication system and the virtual-real world surrounded us. At that time, the structure of the real city was almost breaking down, as well as the moral decline was increasing. The economic bubble has been burst in the end of 80's. The price of land was going down, and the mythology of land price has been finished. Just before constructing the buildings on the land, the capital and the people were lost in the heart of city. As the result, great amount of vacant lands remained there, that remind us the scene after the great war or after the great earthquake. One of the nearest traditional districts from Tokyo Station looks like a mouth missing a few teeth. Two-story parking garages are set up for the present as false teeth. We can also see vast vacant spaces in the reclaimed land in front of Tokyo bay, because of the delay of the development for new subcenter. There are still only some buildings and traffic systems started to work. So, new decade of 1990 begins with how to reuse such vacant lands and many void office floors in Tokyo. People noticed that the land and the space have no value if they don't make use of them. Here come the chance that the city is going to be as dwelling space for the people.
In the best located district, temporary buildings are built up for corresponding quickly to the change of people's demands. In front of bus stop or the corner of the street, many convenience stores are opened. That non-close store offers everything to need for daily life and also for unexpected situation, based on the exact statistics by computer. KOMBINI (=convenience store) and KOBAN (=police box) guarantee anywhere in Tokyo to be convenient and safe. Other vacant spaces are used for working off the frustration. People slap the small and hard balls every day in a big cage. The form of the communication and the function of the public space are both getting personalized gradually in the city. The opportunity for the conversation with live voice are decreasing, because of the increase of electronic communications. Vending machine say "thank you" to a customer with brightening her face. There is the rapid popularization of portable telephone and personal computer network, public telephone box is now only like a little billboard for sex business. In the mid of the city, some kind of the private room is going to be very compact. The hotel room for office worker missing the last train is a plastic coffin cell with a small television. In the city we can see also many houses for homeless people made by corrugated carton. The new village was appeared in the underground passage of west Shinjuku, where the private carton rooms put defenselessly in the extreme public area. It is worthly of notice that this area haf been designed with modernistic city planning. Now we have to find the logical and practical methods to transform our city and to make spaces for real dwelling.
The content of this presentation about City and Architecture in TOKYO is concerning with the formation of urban-dwelling in contemporary Metropolis. In the chaotic environment of big density , or in a small house with many goods, " How the people are now living comfortably and freely each other " is the most interesting and up-to-date matter in Tokyo. This subject is investigated through the transformation of the city form in history, the structure of thepresent city, and the relation between city and dwelling house.
From Edo period until now, Tokyo has experienced some big events, the start of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1603, the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the big Earthquake in 1923, the end of the world war in 1945, the collapse of the economic bubble in 1990. City has repeated destructions and creations of itself that make form of the present city. It's transfiguration looks like that a wooden shrine becomes little bigger and bigger every time it is burned down.
**PLAN OF TOKYO IN 1857/PLAN OF TOKYO IN 1899
From 1603, the city of Edo began to be developped as the metropolis as well as the Edo castle began to be repaired and expanded as the house for the King. In the beginning of 17th century, the form of the city was partially created by means of the reclamation and canalazation works around the castle. The layout of the city was like an eddy. That structure has a possibility of the expansion of the city and also makes an increase of the depth of the heart. At the end of Edo era, more than 1 milliom people lived in the domain of the shogunate. The density of tradesmens' area was extremely high and the big fire occured every year.
**PLAN OF TOKYO IN 1923/PLAN OF TOKYO IN 1945
In 1868, the name of metropolis turned from Edo to Tokyo, the inhabitants of the big castle changed from the Shogun to the Imperial family. The urban planning of European style was started in the part of the city. Ginza district was the good sample because it was located in the middle of the railroad station, the settlement for foreigners, and government office area. The streets became wide and some western style buildings were made to face them. There was also an unrealized project which could have changed Tokyo like Paris. In 1919 the city planning control system was established, which appointed 4 types of use zone (residential/commercial/industrial/non specified). In 1923, the big earthquake destroyed 70% of houses in this city, 44% of surface was burned especilly in the east district. The population decreased from 2.5 to 1.5 millions. The city government organized the enterprise for housing supply, and it produced temporary houses and also concrete apartments which are still existing in Tokyo. As the private railways extended from the loop line to the west suburb, the land development was promoted for making residential areas belong the railways. The suburb increased the population and the redevelopment of the stations was needed. From 1927 the subway was started and made trams fade away. In 1932 Tokyo extended its boundary from about 5km radius to 15km.
**PLAN OF TOKYO IN 1996/LANDEST MAP OF TOKYO
(by Tokai University Research And Information Center)
The world war 2nd had caused great damage to Tokyo by 1945, 28% of the land and 0.7 millions of buildings were destroyed. The postwar recovery plan was made immediately. But the reconcentration of the population was more speedy, so the redevelopment of the urban infrastructure was little done. However, economic recovery was remarkable and Tokyo began to expand again without any strong urban planning. In 30 or 40km distance from the middle of Tokyo newtowns were born. On the other hand, the large capital concentrated to the mid city, young and foreign labors gathered to get job, living in small apartments of bad quality. Rivers were buried for the highways, and the sea reclaimed for the commercial lands. After 60's, the regulations about the building form were changed, high-rise buildings were built up increasingly, and also some proposals for making the city high-rise and expand to the sea area.
These historical backgrounds make the form and structure of today's Tokyo. We try to explain present Tokyo by using these following layers of the urban network.
**POSITION ON THE GLOBE/BOUNDARY/TOPOGRAPHY/CLIMATE AND GEOLOGY
Administratively, Tokyo is not one city . The Metropolis of Tokyo is composed of 23 wards, 26 cities, 1 county and islands. The land of Tokyo 23 wards is composed of hilly part and plain part, which correspond to uptown(=Yamanote) and downtown(=Shitamachi). The street pattern of hilly part is complicated but topographically related to the hill and the valley, compared with the geometrical grid pattern of downtown district. The Imperial Palace is just situated on the border of hilly and plain parts. Tokyo is in temperate zone, the average temperature is 15,the precipitation is 1500mm. Specially the climate of the summer is high temperature and high humidity. They say that Japanese house should be designed for summer season. The section of the ground of Tokyo show us that the Imperial Palace and Tokyo Metropolitan hall are both built on the stable and hard terrace.
**ROADS/TREE-LINED STREETS/RAILWAYS/BUS ROUTES
The main transport systems of Tokyo are roads and railways. In both systems, we can see loop types and radial types centered on the Imperial Palace. The inner-city expressway, which had been constructed for the Olympic Game in 1964, is jumping over this big city, and is now like an exciting circulation route for car race in the midnight of weekend. The surface of the park for each person is about 4 m2 on average in Tokyo, but the trees lining streets are increasing every year. There are some different system of the railways in Tokyo. JR(Japan Railroad) lines are going around the city, and also extending to the provinces. The subways are connecting private railroads each other in the heart of the city. There are 3 subway lines crossing in Kasumigaseki station=Government office area, so that the poison gas had been put inside of these trains in 1995 by the religious bodies.
**POPULAITION DENSITY(NIGHT)/POPULAITION DENSITY(DAYTIME)/
LAND USE/LAND PRICE
POPULATION AND LAND:
Almost 7.8 million people live within the city of Tokyo in 1996. In the central 3 wards, 260 thousand people live in the night, but 2.6 million people work in the daytime. There is a big flow everyday. The maximum of population density is 400/ha. at night and 4000/ha. in the daytime. Tokyo discharges 4 million garbage and 0.2 million kl excreta every year, and the reclaimed lands made by garbage are totaly 40 km2. In 1995 the maxmum of the land price is over 20 million yen for buying 1 m2 in business area, and 6 million yen in residential area. But after the end of economic bubble, the price is down. That decline increase vacant lands here and there in the middle of the city, which are now becoming to be part-time parking lots.
**CONVENIENCE STORE/KOBAN=(POLICE BOX)
BUILDINGS AS DISTRIBUTION:
There are many kinds of buildings scattered all over the city. In the city map or in the car-navigation map, some buildings are drawn as landmarks which confirm our location and direction. The contemporary architectures after 1980's in Tokyo are uneven distributed around Shibuya and Aoyama areas. About 4500 convenience stores are scattered all over the city. That accounts for 10% of all stores in Japan. At every crossing of main streets, a small police box KOBAN is located.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial and structural relations between city-form and architecture in Tokyo today, through analyzing the urban residential block patterns. First, we selected 20 different residential districts and blocks within Tokyo. We researched each block to draw distinctions between interior and exterior area, public and private area, as well as checking the volume and the access patterns. Through the form and volume of block, building form, and street pattern, about 5 typical models are derived. Each type has a different character in making public and private area. Type-A has an alley(=Roji) as public-exterior space. Type-C has grounds as private-exterior space. Type-D has a street and type-E has a square as public-exterior space. On the contrary, type-B has no clear exterior space, so that there is no structure of public/private distinctions to make the urban-dwelling.
FROM THE PRESENT TO THE FUTURE
**30 HOUSES ON THE SAME SCALE
SAME SCALE HOUSES IN TOKYO:
The dwelling action is generally performed within a private building, dwelling house.
There are so many kinds of houses in Tokyo, from a corrugated carton house to the Imperial house. These variations of volumes and scales make the chaotic scenes in this city. This is the same scale table of 30 different plans of dwelling house which exist in Tokyo or some houses which we know through some media. We can find out how people are living in the city from the point of view of inside of the house. A small house or apartment of one room is only for sleeping and storage space, but the city recovers other dwelling functions. It means that in the city they can live without any community like family. A general house or apartment house is composed of personal spaces and common space, so that we generally represent the scale of house like n-LDK, n=numbers of private room, L=living, D=dining, K=kitchen. Today our activities of daily life expand beyond the limits of family, so that the function of a family room is no more like an empty. On the contrary, the imaginary house in media has a symbolic family room, which is important to connect the community of family. The big house is often for plural families. In the past there were a strong community among the families living together, but now each family is so independent that they do not share the common space. In such a big house, the private space for a family and the public space for some guests are divided clearly. Especially the Imperial house is perfectly dividing the public area and the private area. City makes a house like a room because of the city itself becomes like house, on the other hand, a house becomes like a city as microcosm.
CITY AS DWELLING:
In the present city, one of the most important trend is a transfiguration of dwelling style. Urban space is normally composed of public and private space, from the point of the accessibility to the space. In this point, house is generally used for making sure of a private space. On the other hand, urban space is composed of personal space and common space, from the point of the number of person who use the space at the same time. For example in a house, there are bed rooms for the personal space, and dining or living room for the common space. So we can plot each kind of urban space on the matrix of two axes, public/private and personal/common. Especialy the personal-public space is now increasing in the contemporary city.
DISPERSION OF DWELLING SPACE TO THE CITY
The flow of dwelling in the city makes a vague border between house and urban space. There are some reasons that the scale of a house is not enough to live, the disruption of a family brings each person other kinds of community, and the dwelling space is transformed by some technology. City provides many kinds of spaces which are alternative for inside spaces of a house. For example, we often use a hotel room in place of a bed room, a public bath or a coin-shower in place of a bathroom, a family restaurant for a dining room, a family car for a living room, a library or a cafe for a study room, a high-grade club or karaoke bar for customers. In addition, like saving money in the bank, we preserve our clothes in a laundry shop, books in an office, foods in a convenience store of 24H open. We possess our own things and spaces by scatter anywhere in the city. City promotes the dispersion of dwelling space.
MINIMAL HOUSE AS ALTERNATIVE CITY
The average floor area of one house is 60m2, and the avarage floor area of one person is 25.5m2 in 1993. In contrast to the richness of goods, the physical size of dwelling space in Tokyo is poor. But this minimal house is possessing many activities and informations of outside. For example, a newspaper is put on the door every morning without buying outside, pizza and hot noodle are received home quickly by only calling. There are system of dispacher for the massage or sex. Without shopping, we can buy anyhing to need by using the catalogue of mail-order. We can get units and degrees without going to school by the correspondence course. We can communicate everyone in the world by the computer networks. We can also do indoor exercises by some training machine, and play game in the virtual real envirornment. Inside space of a contemporary minimal house gives us an alternative city.
DWELLING STYLE IN THE CITY
The boundary between house=private and city=public is becoming more invisible, because of the dispersion of dwelling space to the city and the penetration of the city into the house. In this condition, the dwelling style is much different for each person. The city provides us various spaces (private/public) and situations (personal/common) corresponding to each kind of people's activity. City is like a catalogue of dwelling style. People can select freely the series of dwelling patterns in this catalogue and make their own style of dwelling. A walkman, a portable telephone or computer, a nutritious medicine, a sleeping pill.... they are able to make personal spaces instantly among the middle of the public space. That means the personal space will be more and more spaceless. To the contrary, the function of the urban space can be more flexible as a common dwelling in the future.
URBAN VOID FOR DWELLING:
As the conclusion of our investigation and analyzation for the city and dwelling, we will finally present some proposals for the urban developments of Tokyo. These following projects are to make our future dwelling in Tokyo with considering various models of common space. They are planned for three different sized spaces and architectures which are real existing in Tokyo. Each space and architecture are vacant and abandoned now, that were made as a result of the distortion of the social system.
VOID 1:VACANT OFFICE FLOORS FOR PRIVATE-COMMON AREA
The site is in the commercial district where so many office buildings remain as vacant, because of the bubble breakdown and the bad management of companies. The program is as follows; The supposing residents are Active independent persons who have no dwelling now. Things left in the existing office are everything but the outside walls. Equipments newly added are kitchens, bathrooms, washrooms, computers, beds, that are scattered on the floor. To make one's own private-personal territory, he must put enclosing wall according to his demand. He may choose the material of the wall from paper, cloths, woods, or steel. It is possible to make a territory in the lower floor by making the hole in the floor. Each territory is for one person, but it is possible to share it to make common area.
VOID 2:UNDERMINED DISTRICTS FOR SEMI-PUBLIC COMMON SPACE
The site of this project is the traditional downtown cartie in the middle Tokyo. Because of the burst of the economic bubble and the trouble of the inheritance tax, most of all habitants were lost, and the block of row style housing were undermined. The supposing residents are Passive person who need a small community. Ground floor is almost kept for the access way or car parking by the walls. First floor is one larrge borderless space for common, with some project areas for each minor community, connected to bereaved houses. Second floor is for collective rooms for the individual persons, they can meet together directly on this floor.
VOID 3 : RECLAIMED LAND FOR PUBLIC-COMMON AREA
The site is the big reclaimed land of bay area. The big site is left alone because of the cancelation of the City's Fair, and for the delay of the development of new subcenter The supposing residents are a large numbers of various community The program is to make flexible public space for the future, for the common park, for the place of refuge at any disaster, and for the housing. Ground surface consists of various materials which was laid out as patchwork and various common activities overlaid it. Basic pillars put in the grid pattern as the connectors of infrastructure. Shelters or fences are overlaid with these surfaces and pillars for future housing. Each community can make own house anywhere and any style they want. We present 4 types of housing. First one is a small house with a simple board or a little hut. The second one is a large house with two horizontal floors. The third one is a low rise housing with long panels and covers. The last is a high rise apartment house with some kinds of common spaces upstairs. Each house is like the amalgamation of the landscape and the housing .
Creation of DOMA space in dwellings
Projects for 3 houses
Tatsuo IWAOKA, Tokai University
土間 DOMA = earth floored area
AMBIGUOUS SPACE / CONNECTOR / CONTROLLER
The content of my presentation is to show my 3 projects of small houses which are just parallel started, but not yet realized. In the process for making the form and the space composition of architectures, the idea is sometimes un clear. But after finishing the basic design of the projects, we can ask ourselves why we decided to make such forms of each project. Through doing the following 3 projects, I could fix one of my conception about how to create the dwelling spaces today. Here comes the keyword of my conception which is called DOMA in Japanese. DOMA means literally the eathen floor, the floor area finished by earth or clay, where the people keep wearing shoes inside a house. I think this is not only the name of a kind of floor's material, but also the unique and very important space for the private house in Japan everyday. DOMA is an ambiguous area between outside and inside, public and private. It is also a connector of each room in a house, or connects a front and a back yard. And sometimes it is a useful space to control the indoor environment, that become the area for many kinds of service activity. Although the potential of DOMA space, it is becoming to share less and less in contemporary general dwelling in Japan. Before the presentation of my works, I want to comment about DOMA using some examples of Japanese houses.
*Reconstructions of Japanese dwellingsin the primitive age(the Toro ruins)
*Icons of 4 types of house carved on the ancient mirror=KAOKU MONKYO
Today we can imagine two different roots of Japanese house-form by the reconstruction of some ruins. One is called a pit house which the floor level is about a half meter below ground. Another is called a platform house which the floor is raised up by the columns. And the ancient drawing shows us 4 types of house,
- pit house for the assembly
- storehouse for grain similar to the platform house
- platform house for the noble people
- flats house for general people
A pit house style is more ancient and simple than the others, the interior space is very dark and closed which style came from the northen world. On the other hand, a platform house make rooms light and well ventilated which style came from the south. Then the existence of the wooden floor had become a symbol of the habitant's status. I think any Japanese house can be made as the mixture of these 2 types, non floored spaces and floored spaces.
**The EGAWA's residence, 17c, Shizuoka (interior photo / plan)
This is an example of the big residence for the powerful family bilt up in 17 century. We can see a large space of the earth floor, simbolic columns and the kitchen range appears. Originally this house had been separated to two parts, the north side as a kitchen house, and the south side as a residential house. The stye of a kitchen part is similar to the traditional farmhouse, which compose the earthen floor space and some floored rooms neighboring. The style of a residential part is similar to Shoin-style originated in the late middle age, which compose some tatami rooms connected by the veranda. Anyway, the DOMA space is in the center of this house, and it serves very important roles.
**The WATANABE's residence, 1788, Niigata (interior photo / plan)
Another example is also a big traditional house of village headman in Niigata. This house is faced to the main road, there are two entrances existed. The formal entrance has no earth floor, on the contrary the service entrance follows about 30 meters long earth floor space. This space connects the main road and the back yard straight together, and a living room, kitchen and water scullery are situated. Like the last residence, the planning is devided clealy two parts. In one part the rooms are all faced to DOMA, so that it can never make the depth of space structure, Other part is composed by the connections of rooms, which make clearly the depth of the circuration.
**Seike House 1, 1954, Tokyo (interior photo / 1st floor plan)
We can also see the unique design of DOMA space in some Japanese contemporary houses by architects. This is a small house with a large garden, designed by Seike in 1954. Some part of the garden is paved with the stone, which surface is continuing to the interior space. People can walk around the living room without taking off their shoes. The continuity of inside / outside space is one of the character of Japanese architecture. But normally the floor level or the floor material is different between inside/ouside of the house, because the people generelly live inside of the house without shoes. So, keeping ones shoes put on inside of the house, that is not only a symbolic behavior of westernized life style for the Japanese, but also an ability to change the inside form very close to outside.
**Tanikawa Residence, 1974, Nagano (interior photo / floor plans)
IThis is another house in the mountain, designed by Shinohara in 1974. In this house, the earthen floored space is very unique and strong. Under the big roof, the space looks like very closed from ouside, and the floor is leaning to one side because of the site level. That gives the symblic power to the space, something with the association to DOMA space of a traditional farmhouse. Shinohara said that the DOMA represents the substantial phase of a traditional rural dwelling.
**House in Hanakoganei, 1983, Tokyo (interior photo / section)
One more example is a house with the open DOMA area, designed by ITO in 1983. The first story is made by concrete, and second story is made by wood. As the section shows, there are 2 living rooms in the upper floor, one is floored with wood, another is floored with concrete. The concrete floored DOMA room is very open to ouside air and very light, which is used for the entrance hall, living room or utility. That is the ambiguous space between inside and ouside, with having an ambiguous function.
*Projects for 3 houses (house H / house U / house O )
From this slide, I am going to present my own projects. These are the real projects of the construction of new houses. The condition of the environment, scale of the floor area, and the client's family situations are different each other. But the concept or the basical space composition of each project have something in common. That is how to create the DOMA space in the contemporary dwellings.
**house H : environment / present condition
The first project called house H is located in the suburbs of Tokyo. There is the loop highway of external Tokyo near the site. The present condition of the environment is typical residential area, many small houses exist very close together. The site is flat rectanglar of 60m2, the access from the east side.
**house H : section / view form the front window
This is the west-east section. The house is like a wooden box with some holes. Inside of the box, there are skip floors raised up by many small beams. Vertical space structure system is similar to the concept of RAUM plan of Adolf Loos.
**house H : plans / section model
Ground floor is the earthen floor finished by concrete. On the contrary first floor is by tatami, and seond floor is by wood. In each floor, equipment spaces and storage spaces are all set at the wall. The stairs divide one unit space into several areas. The ground floor is a common space for the family and a family dog, the upper floors are for the personal space.
**house H : sections / section model
The inside walls will not be finished, and there is no fittings and doors, because of the economic reason as well as the owner likes to do it himself. The outside wall will be the steel panels putting the insulation in between. In this house, The DOMA is the boundary area as a common space between public outward and personal inner spaces.
**house U : environment / present condition
Next project is the river-side house located on some local city. This river is about 100m wide, and the national road crossing near the site. The site is quite small but the location is nice.
**house U : section / front facade
The access road was made on the bank of the river, so the ground level of the site is about 2m lower than the road. This is a small river and this is a retaining wall which is already existed. The access level is on the first floor, so they have to go down to the ground floor and to go up to the second floor. The owner likes to make some vegetables in the dry riverbed, and stock them on the ground floor. He moves outside everyday putting shoes on, so the circulation of the dirt floor is very important for this house.
**house U : plans / pilotis
First I made a vertical circulation of DOMA space, which connects 3 different spaces, the pilotis space of the ground floor, the entrance area, and the roof garden of the second floor. Beside of this circulation, the inner circulation is set which connects each room. As the results, double circulation systems are created in one house. And every room is faced to the inner and the outer circulation together.
**house U : sections / section model
The spatial structure of this house is something like a double spiral stairs. The outside space and inside space bite each other in the floating cubic box.
**house O : environment / present condition
The last project is the a little large house located in the village. This is a farmer's house for one big family. In the north corner of this site, there is a plastic green house. There are two access roads, east and west sides of the site. The rice fields are expanded to the west.
**house O : section / outside look from the west
The level is different between two roads. East side is about 2m higher than west side.
The connection of these roads are needed by the slope way. And the level of the horizontal platform are decided by the relation of the site level, The platform is the phisical boundary between the personal rooms and the common space.
**house O : plans / 2nd floor interior
In this house the DOMA space is expanded from ouside to inside, from the lower level floor to the upper level floor connected by the slope. This is the slope which connects two roads together, this is a passage to the green house, this is a entrence porch, and this is the slope passage from the entrance to the terrasse. This is an interior veranda in the nothside, and this is the stairs connecting two floors. Especially the nothside corridor is used for the controller of the cold north wind, and the southside corridor is used for the controller and the collector of the sunshine. So the DOMA space encloses the interior space, which compose like an inside of a double-wall.
**house O : sections / north elevation
第1回 （11月30日） 田根 剛（DORELL.GHOTMEH.TANE / ARCHITECTS）
第1回 （05月03日） 中村誠宏（A-ASTERISK）
第3回 （10月25日）「Our Profession：『続・絶対建築時代』の理論と実践」河野裕（河野裕建築設計事務所）
- バンコク（2007/8 KMIT短期留学記：前田修悟）